German "death ray" weapon wrecked - The argus, Melbourne - 8 sept, 1944
The argus, Melbourne
8 sept, 1944
This concrete structure in France was intended to house a Nazi secret weapon, French civilians believe. Five thousand workmen were engaged on it day and night, but after 35 attacks by the RAF the project was abandoned. Construc- tion men hinted that a death ray machine capable of stopping air- craft engines in flight and burning London to the ground was being in- stalled. (Canadian WIB Radio photo received by Beam Wireless.)
From "Restricted Films of WWII":
"An incomplete German Block House near Vatan, France. (About 240Km south of Paris) According to civilians, the nazis hoped to house electrical apparatus to send out beams that would stop aircraft in flight. The structure is 300' long, 200' wide, and some four stories high. Steel doors meant to operate on rollers are 8' thick and 24'-25' high. Allied aircraft pounded the block hous and it's environs with 1000lb bombs."
The bunker of Eperlecques is the biggest bunker in the north of France, witness of the 1939-45 dark age, from 1939 to 1945. Open to the public since 1973 and listed "Ancient Memorials" in 1985.
March 25, 1943 (Thursday)
The go-ahead for construction of the Blockhaus d'Éperlecques was approved by Adolf Hitler. Located in France near Watten and the English Channel, the "blockhaus" was a hardened bunker with walls 12 feet thick, the first of three constructed to house Germany's V-2 missiles. By the way they moved quickly and numerous nationalities are present on this enormous construction site.
After the bombing of the Bunker of Eperlecques on 27th August 1943, German military authorities became aware of the vulnerability of their construction site. It had indeed become impossible to use the Bunker of Eperlecques as unique base to assemble and launch rockets.
Translated from French (Google translator):
A series of plans found in German archives shows the blockhouse Eperlecques . An attached sketch MY Delefosse shows the current status Blockhouse from the initial project. It was essentially a true assembly plant for the V2 rockets , they were assembled in the area north , as shown on the plan ( drawings MY Delefosse ).
This party was served by two railroads, bringing Calais - Saint- Omer.
Between these two pathways was a garage for motor vehicles that were accessing the same bunker and could unload . This side of the building , although badly damaged by subsequent bombardment is still visible today. Further south , was the assembly hall and verification V2 rockets, and in the last part was planned the installation of five groups compressors manufacturing liquid oxyge.
When erected vertically in the gallery, the rocket was transferred and filled its fuels and oxidizers . The rocket was equipped and ready to ship , so she crossed the corridor and the revolving door of 17.5 meters high, which are still visible and the location was held firing .
It should be noted that there are baffles on the side walls of the corridor . These baffles are still visible, they were certainly intended to break the shock wave that would enter the hall at the start of the rocket.
After the bombing of Eperlecques Bunker 27 August 1943 , the German military authorities became aware of the vulnerability of their site. It was indeed become impossible to use Eperlecques Bunker as the sole basis for assembling and sending rockets.
Translated from French (Google translator):
In the last days of March 1943, the Todt Organisation undertook Works very large of unexplained nature at the edge Southern Eperlecques forest near Watten, 11 miles northwest of Saint-Omer, Pas-de-Calais. In the months that followed, other projects were opened in northern France to Cotentin. This was the construction of facilities formatting work and shooting for FZG 76 or V1, V2 or A4 and HDP or V3.
The book "constructions spéciales" (special constructions) by Roland Hautefeuill is a complete tour of the building, fire and allied attacks on these very secret sites. These bombings have forced the Germans to change their strategy and launch their armed reprisals from less precise mobile sites.
The British government was spooked back in 1935. Not because of Hitler’s air force or his infantry. Because of his death ray.
Newspapers screamed that the Nazis might have a super-weapon that could incinerate living tissue or detonate a bomb at long distance. Flooded by letters begging for a response, the British Air Ministry asked prominent physicist Robert Watson-Watt to see if a radio-wave-based death ray was feasible.
Within ten days Watson-Watt reported that such a weapon was unlikely. But using radio waves to locate an approaching bomber was a real possibility. And that's how radar was born.
Robert Watson-Watt is given the credit for inventing the radar. In fact, this credit should go to the German engineer Christian Hulsmeyer who in 1904, using patented an early warning system for shipping. He, in turn, used a discovery by Heinrich Hertz who had discovered in 1888 that radio waves could be bounced off objects.
In 1935, Robert Watson-Watt - a Scottish physicist - was asked by the Air Ministry to investigate the possibility of creating a "death-ray" weapon using radio waves. Watson-Watt was working at the National Physical Laboratory in Slough.
Watson-Watt did not create a "death-ray" weapon but he did find that his radio transmitters could create an echo from an aeroplane that was over 200 miles away. This information would give the Royal Air Force an early warning of an attack by enemy fighters. By the time an enemy force was nearing the coastline, fighters would be airborne and ready to fight. The enemy would have lost the element of surprise. This invention by Watson-Watt was vital to the RAF during the Battle of Britain in 1940.
In 1940, aided by John Randall and Henry Boot from Birmingham University, Robert Watson-Watt invented the cavity magnetron. This produced a compact source of short-wave radio waves and allowed Fighter Command of the RAF to detect incoming enemy planes from a much greater distance thus giving the pilots more time to organize themselves.
During WW2 the German electronics firm Siemens developed a particle beam weapon for the Luftwaffe. It was invented by Prof Max Steenbeck in 1935. Heinz Schmellenmeier, Richard Gans and Fritz Houtermans were leading figures in the project.
How the machine worked was that it interrupted the magnetos of engines in Allied bombers and brought aircraft down to lower altitudes into the reach of FLAK batteries.
Norwegian born Dr Rolf Wideroe wrote in his autobiography that he worked on a particle accelerator X-Ray transformer for this project at Hamburg in 1943. The Philips subsidiary Valvo also participated and much of the engineering was performed by CHF Muller & Co. Wideroe later rescued the device from the rubble of Dresden and delivered it to General Patton's 3rd Army at Burggrub on 14 April 1945.
A second rival device, Ernst Schiebolds 'Röntgenkanone was developed at Großostheim south of Frankfurt. This employed a particle accelerator cupped from beneath by a Beryllium parabolic mirror with a bundle of nine beryllium rods as an anode at it's core. the entire device was steerable at Allied bomber formations. The Company Richert Seifert & Co was largely responsible for it's manufacture.
These were not lasers. They directed hard radiation at aircraft and were the forerunners of Star wars weapons today.
In the later phases of World War II, Nazi Germany increasingly put its hopes on research into technologically revolutionary secret weapons, the Wunderwaffen.
Among the directed-energy weapons the Nazis investigated were X-Ray Beam Weapons developed under Heinz Schmellenmeier, Richard Gans and Fritz Houtermans. They built an electron accelerator called Rheotron (invented by Max Steenbeck at Siemens-Schuckert in the 1930s, these were later called Betatrons by the Americans) to generate hard X ray synchrotron beams for the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM). The intent was to pre-ionize ignition in Aircraft engines and hence serve as anti-aircraft DEW and bring planes down into the reach of the FLAK. The Rheotron was captured by the Americans in Burggrub on April 14, 1945.
Another approach was Ernst Schiebolds 'Röntgenkanone' developed from 1943 in Großostheim near Aschaffenburg. The Company Richert Seifert & Co from Hamburg delivered parts.
The Third Reich further developed sonic weaponry, using parabolic reflectors to project sound waves of destructive force. Microwave Weapons were investigated together with the Japanese (see also Japanese radar and related weapons of world war 2)
Betatron kill device - USA Defense Advanced Research DOD/DARPA agency - 1989
A feasibility study is proposed on a novel concept for design of an electronic kill (soft kill) device. The concept utilizes conventionalmeans to deliver a high energy radiation producing device (a "betatron") in close proximity to threat weapon systems, thereby destroying electronic components integrated into, or in support of, threat weapon systems. As the betatron collapses under pressure from high explosives contained in the delivery system, it forward scatters high energy gamma radiation in a cone-like geometry, producing a high probability of permanent damage to electronic devices within the cone of radiation. Previous research conducted by sandia national laboratory under the code name "delphi", for the office of strategic defense; and betatron research conducted by both u.S. And soviet sources supports the possibility of this device.
Rolf Wideroe said in his autobiography:
“It appears that Dr. Schiebold hawked his ideas about. He spoke to physicists who must have thought him a hopeless case, but he also tackled some influential people in official capacities who were not in a position to make informed judgements. Most people probably dismissed him as a harmless lunatic, but some must have been convinced because the Air Force, i.e. the German Aviation Ministry (RLM) and Command of the Luftwaffe, provided a certain amount of support for his `death ray'.
In order to conduct some test experiments for this `death ray', a still unused and unpacked X-ray apparatus with a high voltage supply of a little over one million volts (made by means of a sort of cascade circuit), was taken from a hospital in Hamburg to a small military airport called Groß-Ostheim (today `Großostheim') in the region of Hanau. If I remember rightly, Richard Seifert organized this tests and Hollnack was their administrator. However, both engineers and technicians quickly understood that the danger to themselves operating the machine on the ground was far greater than to the pilots and bombs in the enemy aircraft.
Still, a ray-transformer or betatron could produce X-rays of many million volts and in doing so one could, in principle (purely on the grounds of the laws of physics), improve the `bundling' of the beam with an increase of energy. To a certain extent, the effective range could be increased. This seemed to be the reason for the German Air Force's interest in the betatron. I wasn't really supposed to know anything about it, and we only ever talked about the betatron in terms of its importance to medicine. As it turned out this was actually correct.
By November 1943 I had developed a three-phase plan which provided first for the construction of a 15 MeV betatron in Hamburg, then a 200 MeV betatron and finally an experimental station in Groß-Ostheim for even larger installations... [Wideroe comments that only the Hamburg machine came to fruition however Allied intelligence refers to a working machine at Groß-Ostheim disrupting Allied bombers therefore Wideroe may have been out of the loop on subsequent developments]
Our work in Hamburg soon confirmed that the step from Kerst's 2.3 MeV machine (USA) to our planned 15 MeV ray-transformer was the right one. Of course, all we wanted in principle was to achieve as much energy as possible, but at 15 MeV we did not expect any imminent problems with the iron yoke (which was very similar to that of an ordinary transformer). However, these problems did appear when we built the first 31MeV machine for Brown Boveri in Baden, as I shall explain later.”
Dr. Schiebold's 'Röntgenkanone' was captured by Patton's Army at Burggrub near Beyreuth about 14 April 1945. It disappeared into US black projects in New Mexico brought back to USA by Project LUSTY.
From Wideroe's online autobiography, The Infancy of Particle Accelerators
I eventually found out why the German Air Force was so interested in the betatron. Physicist Dr. Schiebold from Leipzig, a specialist on non-destructive testing of materials using X-rays among other methods (after the War he became professor in Magdeburg) had had the idea that it would be possible to build an X-ray tube....[that] would cause the X-rays to be emitted in a narrow bundle. With sufficiently high voltage it would then be possible to achieve high radiation intensities at long distances. Thus it may even be possible to kill the pilots.
In order to conduct some test experiments for this ‘death ray’, a still unused and unpacked X-ray apparatus with a high voltage supply of a little over one million volts (made by means of a sort of cascade circuit), was taken from a hospital in Hamburg to a small military airport called Groß-Ostheim (today ‘Großostheim’) in the region of Hanau.
Gunson states that "ball lightning" was an artifact of the ray when it was used to disable aircraft in flight. I have heard this claim before, though I can't remember where. However, mention of ball lightning always rings a resounding "ding! ding! we have a winna!" in my head.
A betatron is a cyclic particle accelerator developed by Donald Kerst at the University of Illinois in 1940 to accelerate electrons, but the concepts ultimately originate from Rolf Widerøe, whose development of an induction accelerator failed due to the lack of transverse focusing. Previous development in Germany also occurred through Max Steenbeck in the 40s.
The betatron is essentially a transformer with a torus-shaped vacuum tube as its secondary coil. An alternating current in the primary coils accelerates electrons in the vacuum around a circular path. The betatron was the first important machine for producing high energy electrons.
Betatrons were historically employed in particle physics experiments to provide high energy beams of electrons—up to about 300 MeV. If the electron beam is directed at a metal plate, the betatron can be used as a source of energetic x-rays or gamma rays; these x-rays may be used in industrial and medical applications (historically in radiation oncology). A small version of a Betatron was also used to provide electrons converted into hard X-rays by a target to provide prompt initiation of some experimental nuclear weapons by means of photon-induced fission and photon->neutron reactions in the bomb core.
The Radiation Center, the first private medical center to treat cancer patients with a betatron, was opened by Dr. O. Arthur Stiennon in a suburb of Madison, Wisconsin in the late 1950s.
1 June 1952
Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3
This device (code named XR2) used a Mk 5 bomb assembly. The test was intended to gather additional data on the initiation time vs yield curve. A novel feature of this test was the use of an
external initiator - in this case employing a device called a betatron (which is a circular electron accelerator). In this test the high energy electrons were used to generate high energy X-rays
that induced photo-fission in the core to initiate the chain reaction. The betatron allowed very accurate control of initiation time. The test device had a diameter of 40 inches and weighed 2700
lb, the predicted yield was 30 kt.
Translated from Germany (Google translator)
Peter and Klaus Hepp Sauerwein's secret projects of the air base Großostheim 1943 -1944
In 1937, the former German Air Force leased 110 hectares of Großostheimer community forest and about 20 acres of private woods to build a military airfield. When war broke out in September 1939 missions were flown against France from here. After the end of the campaign in France, the aircraft were withdrawn. On a part of the site a research unit of the Air Force was formed. In December 1948, the Municipality under Mayor Nicholas Boll began to build a settlement and industrial site here.
Still surrounds the former Air Force Research Unit of the Großostheimer airfield - today local ring home - many secrets. After the fall of the Iron Curtain many documents were available for the first time . For a planned photo - documentation , which will be published in 2010 for the 60th anniversary of the founding of the town ring home , searches were undertaken to collect all still attainable . Contacts were made to France and the USA.
In the University of Leipzig in the scientific work of the researcher Prof. Dr. Ernst Schiebold are obtained together with the original blueprints of the long- demolished Research Hall . The results are in book form ( Pedro Waloschek : Death Rays Lifesavers - True Stories from the Third Reich , Books on Demand Publishing 2004) published and show that this was not just the usual secret weapons rumors. Even Kurt Braatz ' book " sheep pasture - insert port Zellhausen , publishing Neunundzwanzigsechs , 2001 " has attracted the attention of those interested awakened .
Visits to the now established Bunker Museum , visits of cultural trail and close contact with the culture initiative ring home and not least the global power of the Internet yielded insights into the records Alois city miller over the airbase of the 2nd World War until the present settlement ring home .
Did the relatively insignificant Aerodrome of first order in the first years of its existence, a more tranquil existence , except ( war against France) of the activity at the beginning of World War II , but this changed later than the beginning of 1943 with a letter from Prof. Dr . Ernst Schiebold to the Berlin office of Field Marshal Erhard Milch (1892 -1972) in the Reich air Ministry (RLM) . Milk was at the time Generalluftzeugmeister and Inspector General of the Air Force of the Empire, one of the most influential men under Hermann Goering.
Contents of this rather strange letter dated 5 April 1943, the proposal of an additional ordnance to combat and destruction of the occupation of enemy aircraft and ground forces on the defensive by X-ray and electron ... The undersigned wishes to inform in the interest of national defense in the total war following to make proposals which appear to him as a long-time expert in the field of X-ray and electron beams as new for the enemy fight .
Schiebold want to fight with X-ray arms and low-flying aircraft ( unarmored ) ground troops , also build with strong fanned space radiation air closed areas to defensive protection of borders and cities. With several hundred X-ray sources to let an entire city from Allied bombing protect the whole of Germany with a few thousand of his ray guns.
Schiebold was the Reich Air Ministry (RLM) and personally well known to General Field Marshal Milch and we appreciated his abilities , since he had already received orders from the RLM . He is considered the founder of the non-destructive testing of materials and conducted in Leipzig an "Institute of Radiological raw and Materials " . From Air Force Colonel Pasewald (RLM) Schiebold receives permission to be top-secret project with his friend Richard Seifert (Director and owner of the successful company " Richard Seifert & Co" , production of X-ray equipment for medicine and industry ) to discuss this in the presence of Captain Dipl. -Ing. Kurt Fennel . On April 17, there is a first official meeting in Hamburg, in the tripartite in a transcript Schiebolds basic principle of Seifert is confirmed. Seifert doubts, however , whether it will be possible already during this period (ie, 1-2 years ) to develop equipment , materials and devices so that at a distance up to 2 km sekundliche the dose of 600 r to induce biological damage of constant effect can be achieved.
Seifert makes the proposal , an existing X-ray therapy unit ( six-stage cascade generator and acceleration path for electrons) , which was intended for the hospital Hamburg- Barmbek , but because of the war still unused and packaged there encamped , for the first measurements to use in high-energy beams . The measured radiation dose in addition to the apparatus corresponded to that more than 10 kilograms ( ! ) Would produce radium , that is a very dangerous radiation!
The transfer of funds should be made about the university bursary Dresden or Leipzig University bursary . A Tarnungskennwort was proposed: " X-ray examination of armor plates " . The document was signed by Seifert, Fennel and Schiebold .
From the period of April or May 1943 comes a further order of the RLM to " X-ray stress measurement" of aircraft parts that were probably performed on Junker aircraft on the airfield of the Air Force in Großostheim . Provided funds for this were 150 000 Reichsmarks.
In further supplements of 19 and April 20, 1943 Schiebold tries to concretize his plans. He suggests , for example, prior to ionize the air artificially , to disturb the ignition in aircraft engines , then again he wants to make the atmosphere conductive to selectively generate high voltage charges. He never goes there but cautious , a technical detail.
Schiebold allowed his ideas of Field Marshal milk office present them orally , but not personally for milk, but the Chief of the Division GL / C of the Reich Air Ministry and the General Vorwald GL / CE chief Colonel Pasewald . On Schiebolds initiative also were Capt. Dipl. -Ing. Kurt Fennel and Theodor Hollnack (both trustees of the RLM ) consulted. Schiebold Hollnack knew from previous negotiations on research contracts of the RLM . At this important meeting of the research commissioned by the severity level is " DE 6224/0109/43 " decided and Fennel , Hollnack , Schiebold and Seifert received a personally issued by Field Marshal Milch power of attorney for the purpose of participation in the said order.
The mission of the Air Force could be started with the work accordingly. About the financial resources and limit this official order is unfortunately not recorded, but it must have been considerable. To perform a directed by Ernst Schiebold and privately funded company was provided with the name of the Institute of radiographic raw materials and materials research . When the war ended had the Schieboldsche " institute" about 20 employees.
For the authorized and top secret projects for beam weapons were appointed : Ernst Schiebold as scientific director , Richard Seifert as a technical advisor and Theodor Hollnack as organizational manager .
About Kurt Fennel , there are no exact figures , although he was present at many meetings. Paula core of Aschaffenburg, then 20 years old and indentured civilian employees in Schiebolds " Institute " ( her salary she received from Leipzig ) at the airbase Großostheim, reported in April 2009 that there in September 1943 Captain Fennel in the headquarters of the air base Großostheim his office and had been stationed there permanently . He now and then visited by his family from Berlin received . A very pleasant man, as woman stressed core , apparently the military drills not meant very much and the more unmilitary behaved against the civilian employees and soldiers . Sometime later he was promoted to Major. When Paula core was conscripted , Serious Schiebold was not there , so she was busy in the commandant's office at Kurt Fennel . She remembers to have had very little work. From time to time she had to write a letter dictated by Fennel . Often they spent the time with knitting what looked like Fennel obviously , the woman then core praised German housewife virtues.
At this time, no more than five soldiers, including a corporal Michalski, two officers and a sergeant were at the airbase . There were 10 to 15 civilian security guards from the surrounding villages who had to guard the empty air base . In the Hall of the Research Center of the Air Force core Paula , no activity could notice - and during the entire period of their service obligation at the airbase ( September 1943 to 21 November 1944). It was absolutely forbidden to approach the hall. A strange contrast to the flurry of activity in the Far Berlin. During his sporadic visits to the airbase Ernst Schiebold moved into an office in the medical barracks. Together with his staff, he began with the few rescued from air raids instruments or fragments to build a new laboratory. Probably the arrival Schiebolds coincides on the site of the air base Großostheim with the bombing of Leipzig on December 4, 1943 at the Schiebold practically lost all his equipment , his library and manuscripts and many of its models .
Since early 1944 , the adjacent airfield was not used, there was no bombing . This did not change until the end of September 1944 with the deployment of German squadrons. In January / February 1944, the hall for the construction of originating from Hamburg 1.2 mega volt high- voltage X-ray unit was finished . With the X-rays produced thereby Schiebold tests would perform in terms of their reach and bundling. Towards the middle of 1944 should additionally focus on CHF Müller ordered 15 MeV beam transformer be installed " on the design Wideröe " . Schiebold brought a somewhat older private secretary after Großostheim , which , according to statement from Paula core , mothered him literally . There was dispute between Fennel and Schiebold about who was allowed to employ Paula core. Fennel had probably gotten used to it , but it was paid for by Schiebolds Institute . Schiebold prevailed and Mrs. core from then on worked with him in the medical barracks. There, too, she had little to do . They usually had to write personal letters for Ernst Schiebold . Schiebold which was lame and followed suit one leg , usually worn with slippers on the road , which aroused resentment among his senior secretary and warned him again and again , but he should dress neatly .
Schiebold moved to 14 - week intervals between the airbase Großostheim and presumably Leipzig, the location of his bombed Institute. Probably because a large part of the documents on proposals for "X-ray guns " gone down as well as his correspondence with Seifert, Hollnack and Wideröe .
On 15 February 1944, the military commander of the received " Research Centre of the Air Force Großostheim " (his name is not mentioned - it probably is but Kurt Fennel ) a letter from his supervisor Prof. Dr. Walther Georgii (Head of German Research Institute for Gliding DFS and Member the four-member research leadership of the Reich Air Ministry ) in which it was reported that the private Institute of Prof. Schiebold only temporarily should be in Großostheim, and that this stay was limited to 1 April 1944. The commander has (apparently in a meeting at the Research Unit on February 18, 1944) forwarded a copy of the said letter. Then Schiebold has his position and his plans in a letter Georgii explained with the subsequent request to reverse his decision . It is noteworthy that Georgii had not first or simultaneously turned the matter also to Schiebold itself . It would Schiebold must be noticed that at least a part of his colleagues and even some of his clients no longer supported his proposals.
But apparently Georgii has changed his attitude after that , because Schiebold remained with his semi-private " Institute for radiological raw and Materials Research " and after April 1, 1944 in Großostheim . On May 4, 1944 Schiebold to write a short report on the work under the research contract DE 6224/0109/43 , which were carried out on April 20, 1943. Among other things he writes in note form :
Participation in the technical and organizational preparations on the selection of the place and the establishment of the test site Großostheim ... presentation on the importance of Wideröeschen beam transformer for the present plans and leading involvement in negotiations with Dr. Wideröe ... drawing up plans concerning . development and expansion of the great hall in Gr. Ostheim , together with the office of Prof. Tamms (architect Sander ) and the competent gentlemen of the Luftgau XII ... drawing up the plans for installation , telephone system , etc. for the initially planned laboratory barracks and the expansion of accommodation spaces ... try to set up scientific work spaces together with fine mechanical workshop , first with the inventory of the Institute of radiographic raw materials and materials research for purposes of effecting urgent preliminary tests - these facilities at the instigation of research leadership since been removed from Ostheim ... preparation of inventories and equipment for the first establishment of laboratories and workshops procurement ... the 1.2 million volt system from the Hamburg State ... order a 2.2 MV X-ray system at the firm CHF Müller in Hamburg .... development contract to the firm CHF Müller- Hamburg with a 15 MV beam transformer design Wideröe ... procurement of laboratory equipment and need from prey bodies of the Air Force ... Prof. Dr. E. Schiebold , Leipzig , May 4, 1944.
On the same date Schiebold has submitted proposals to ten pages of a 'scientific work program "for the" Research Centre of the Air Force in Großostheim " .
In the meantime, however, there were still other operations , of which Schiebold knew nothing and there are no written documents about until now. But are a witness information, leading to the conclusion that was spoken in Schiebold inaccessible circles about his ideas . So says Prof. Dr. M. Scheer, who was working in 1943 on a thesis in Jena that his thesis supervisor Prof. Helmuth Kulenkampff (1895 -1971 ) in the war was occasionally visited by Prof. Walther Gerlach, who in between his offices Berlin and his Department in Munich shuttled back and forth. During one of these visits Gerlach was quite excited and wanted to talk to Kulenkampff an extremely secret project , about which one actually was not allowed to speak , from which he had but somehow learn and even brought documents . It was a rather questionable method for the production of certain X-rays. In this area, namely Kulenkampff knew from very well. So Gerlach told his colleagues about Kulenkampff Schiebolds been suggested that X-rays as a weapon against enemy aircraft and ground forces . Obviously, he also showed him the Schiebold 's documents because Ku- lenkampff has soon found therein two otherwise correct conditions on Schiebolds manner but were not applicable . He found that the yield in converting the electron energy in X-rays by the knowledge at the time not nearly as rapidly increases with the electron energy as it requires Schiebold . And as a second point, he complained that the law of distance used by Schiebold for large-scale anti- cathode is valid only for relatively small distances , but in no case for distances of several kilometers .
Kulenkampffs fierce criticism confirmed Gerlach doubt. Kulenkampff was even willing to speak about it in a report , even without an official invitation . Encouraged by Gerlach Kulenkampff has finally written to the responsible Field Marshal Milch a letter that Gerlach had (according to Scheer ) certainly communicated. It was a courageous act , because it was clear that Gerlach had breached its duty to confidentiality . Kulenkampff got it a very personal letter from milk (which he has also shown Scheer ), in which he is thanked for his courage and clear statement .
From later documents show that was convened in February 1944 before a " Board of Trustees of the Research Center of the Air Force Großostheim " , whose chairman was Gerlach . The members of the advisory committee , Dr. Karl A. Eger , Abraham Esau , Kurt Fennel , mind , Walther Gerlach, Walter Georgii , Heuser, Theodor Hollnack , Lieutenant General Franz v. Loßberg , Richard Seifert, Friedrich Tamms and the physicist and Nobel laureate Werner Heisenberg . Schiebold was not a member of the Board of Trustees , which should obviously assess its activities and monitor them as scientific director of the Research Centre. But Kulenkampff and the Norwegian professor Wideröe were not members . They could only be invited as guests to meetings or meetings.
The end of this project came quite quickly in August 1944. The Board of Trustees of the Research Centre lectured Schiebold off in August 1944 , because there is no chance to make the plan of Professor Schiebold usable for military purposes . After the opposition died away in September , his vision was finally buried by the " ray gun " .
It may be speculated that motivation Schiebold shoot, the RLM to serve his proposals that were considered spinnige ideas in circles of other scientists . Main motive was probably his " Institute ", which was dependent on ongoing research projects of the RLM . Sure he wanted to protect its employees from the use at the frontlines of the collapsing empire. The Leipzig with the wonder weapons idea died in 1963 in Magdeburg. However, the development was initiated for future applications in medicine , nuclear physics and technology of great importance.
A documentary about the airbase Großostheim to appear in 2010. Therefore, the authors find additional photos , documents and reports on the airbase and ask the audience for help . Originals are of course returned and refunded any costs . A preliminary summary of the events at the airbase Großostheim, also on another secret project of the Norwegian professor Rolf Wideröe ( betatron ) is found on the website www.grossostheim - in - krieg.de . Here, witnesses and interested in history, the authors can contact . Feel free to call : Peter Hepp 0 60 26-12 9 5 or Klaus Sauerwein 0 60 92-4 74
Pedro Waloschek: Death Rays Lifesavers - True Stories from the Third Reich, Books on Demand Publishing, 2004
Igor Witkowski: The Truth About the Wunderwaffe - Part 1, Mosquito Verlag, 2008;
Alois Müller city: Aschaffenburg in World War II, bombing - Siege - Surrender, Aschaffenburg, 1970 and Main Spessart region and in World War II, Overview - the air war - conquest, 1982
Peter Hepp: Großostheim during the war years 1939 -1945 - Documentation of the war everyday life in the home and at the front, 2005.
Entries emphasized in italics refer directly to the life and work of Rolf Wideröe (RW). I have included events, which could have had relevance for Wideröe's life. They were originally collected as editing aids and I make no claims for completeness. P.W.
1902-07-11 RW born in Oslo.
1905 Nobel prize to Philipp Lenard.
1906 Nobel prize to Joseph J. Thomson (the electron).
1911 Ernest Rutherford discovers the atomic nucleus.
1918 Nobel prize to Max Planck (quanta).
1918 Rutherford: first disintegration of an atomic nucleus.
1920-summer RW's school-laving exams at the Halling School in Oslo.
1920-autumn RW begins studies in electrical engineering at Karlsruhe Technical University.
1921 Nobel prize to Albert Einstein.
1922 Nobel prize to Niels Bohr.
1922-01 1 $ = 192 German Mark.
1922-04-01 J. Slepian (Westinghouse) applies for a US-Patent `XRay Tube' presenting the first rudimental ideas for a betatron [Sl27]; published on Oct. 11, 1927.
1923-03-15 RW's first (preserved) notes in a copy-book including a sketch for a betatron [Wi23]. (More drawings and computations in other copy-books.)
1923 RW's one-month practical work in a factory for electric motors in Strasbourg.
1923? RW asks an agency in Karlsruhe to submit a patent on the betatron. It was probably never submitted. (The agency's building was completely destroyed during the War.)
1923-11-15 1 $ = 4,200,000,000,000 German Mark.
1924-03-12 G. Ising: First known proposal for the acceleration of charged particles with electromagnetic `travelling waves' [Is24].
1924 RW obtains his diploma in electrical engineering at Karlsruhe Technical University. His thesis was on `Voltage Distributions in Chains of Isolators'.
1924 RW's first publication, on `Inflation in Germany' [Wi24].
1925-summer RW's `practical work' in the locomotive factory of the Norwegian State-Railways. He also completes 72 days of military service in Norway.
1925-autumn RW proposes the `ray-transformer' (betatron) as thesis for a doctor-degree in electrical engineering in Karlsruhe. Prof. Schleiermacher (theory) agrees, Prof. Gaede (physics) refuses. Gaede assumes that the achievable vacuum would not be sufficient (residual gas would absorb the circulating particles.
1925-End RW studies Lenard's publications [Le18] on the absorption of electrons in matter and comes to the conclusion that Gaede's assumptions were wrong.
1926-05 RW proposes the construction of the ray-transformer to Prof. Rogowski in Aachen.
1926-06... RW starts working and studying at the Technical University in Aachen (RWTH) under Prof. Rogowski. Tests of the first ray-transformer (betatron) are unsuccessful due to surface charges in the tube and lack of stabilizing forces of the magnetic steering field.
1927-autumn RW changes over to building a small linear accelerator. He succeeds in accelerating ions to 50,000 volts, having only 25,000 volts at his disposal. It is the first drift-tube ever operated, demonstrating the principle of acceleration of charged particles with high frequency alternating voltages.
1927-autumn Steenbeck starts working with Rüdenberg at Siemens Halske company in Berlin.
1927-10-11 Slepian's US-Patent (Westinghouse) `X-Ray Tube' is made public [Sl22].
1927-11-28 RW finishes all examinations and obtains his `Dr.-Ing.'-degree in Aachen. The successful linac with one drift-tube is the main subject of his thesis, the ray-transformer (betatron) is explained in Section IV including the `2:1-ratio' between accelerating and steering fields, which is later called the `Wideröe-relation' for betatrons.
1927 Breit and Tuve (Carnegie Institution USA) perform interesting tests with a simple betatron [Br27]. Their efforts are unsuccessful, but very promising.
1928 RW's dissertation is published in the `Archiv für Elektrotechnik' [Wi28].
1928-03 RW moves to Berlin. He obtains a position at AEG's transformer factory (Berlin Oberschöneweide) following a recommendation from Rogowski. RW develops safety-relays for short circuits in power lines. By the end of 1932 he has applied for 42 German patents and 2 US patents, all for AEG.
1929 Walton reports on tests of a simple betatron and a linac built at Cambridge, following suggestions by Rutherford. None of these devices work. However, Walton includes very important deductions and formulas in his publication, establishing for the first time precise stability conditions for circular orbits in betatrons [Wa29].
1930 Breit, Tuve, Hafstad and Dahl develop several very interesting high voltage generators at the Carnegie Institution in Washington DC.
1930 Lawrence and Edlefsen publish the basic ideas for a `cyclotron' [La30].
1931-01 Lawrence communicates the successful operation of his first cyclotron (13 cm diameter, 80 keV) to the American Physical Society [La31b].
1931 Lawrence and Sloan construct and operate a linac following Wideröe's ideas. It has 15 drift-tubes and reaches 1,26MV [La31a]. Other linacs follow.
1931 Van de Graaff communicates to the American Physical Society the successful operation of his first electrostatic generator using a silk-band [Gr31] with which he achieves about 1,5MV. Several similar installations follow.
1932 Cockroft and Walton [Co32] succeed in obtaining the first nuclear disintegrations using artificially accelerated particles (400 keV cascade generator). Lawrence confirms this results a few months later with a 1.2-MeV-cyclotron.
1932-12 Lawrence successfully operates a 69-cm-cyclotron for 4,8 MeV.
1932-12 RW moves from Berlin to Oslo, scared of the economic crisis in Germany and of Hitler's rise to power.
1933-03-01 Rüdenberg and Steenbeck (Siemens-Schuckert-Werke, Berlin) apply for a German patent [Ru33] which includes a rough stability condition for a betatron (published on Febr. 4, 1938). As is usual at that time, no references to previous work are given. When the patent is submitted Rüdenberg has already emigrated to Great Britain to escape anti-semitism.
1933 Ising publishes an article in the Annual-Report of the Swedish Physical Society [Is33] in which Wideröe is wrongly described as `German' (page 34).
1933-04-01... RW builds protective relays for the company N. Jacobsen in Oslo. By 1937 he has applied for ten Norwegian patents on relays.
1933-autumn RW's driving holiday in a Ford-A. From England (with his friend Torwald Torgersen), to France, Spain and Germany. RW also tries to sell his relays. He has no success and experiences severe health problems.
1934-02 RW meets Ragnhild Christiansen (born Jan. 3, 1913), in Ms. Fearnley's dance academy in Oslo.
1934-11-14 RW and Ragnhild are married.
1935-03-07 Steenbeck (Siemens) applies for a second patent in Germany (also in Austria) for a betatron [St35]. Besides the rough stability condition, this patent also includes (as claim) the 2:1-relation between steering and accelerating field.
1935-Middle Ragnhild Wideröe works for a short time (unofficially) at Jacobsen's and helps RW build and test relays.
1936 Jassinski: interesting paper on betatrons [Ja36].
1936-03-06 Steenbeck (Siemens) applies for a betatron-patent in the USA [St36] (published on Dec. 28, 1937).
1936-06-25 RW's daughter Unn is born in Oslo.
1937 RW's chance discovery of Slepian's US patent [Sl27].
1937 ?? RW's report on relays in Copenhagen (Nordish Engineer's meeting). Ing. Styff (from NEBB) is present.
1937-04... RW starts working for the transformer factory `National Industri', in Oslo, a subsidiary of Westinghous USA. Very boring activity!
1938-12-20 RW's son Arild is born in Oslo.
1937-12-28 Steenbeck's US-Patent on betatrons is published [St35].
1938-autumn The `Physics Association' is founded in Oslo.
1939-summer First edition of the Norwegian review `Fra Fysikkens Verden' published by the Physics Association.
1939-09-01 German troops invade Poland. Great Britain and France declare war against Germany.
1939-10 Lawrence operates his 150-cm-cyclotron for 19MeV deuterons.
1939-11 Nobel prize to Lawrence.
1940-04-09 German troops occupy Norway.
1940-05 Touschek is expelled from Vienna University as `non Aryan'. Takes several jobs. He helps Arnold Sommerfeld revise Vol. 2 of the famous book `Atombau und Spektrallinien'.
1940-06... RW starts working for `Norsk elektrisk og Brown Boveri' (NEBB) in Oslo, planning and building power plants.
1940-10-15 Kerst (Univ. of Illinois) reports on successful tests of a 2MeV betatron [Ke40a]; Wideröe and Walton are quoted, Steenbeck is not.
1940-11-13 Kerst (`on leave at General Electric') applies for a US-patent for a betatron [Ke40b].
1940-11-22 Kerst (`on leave at General Electric') reports on the successful operation of his 2,3-MeV-betatron [Ke40a].
1940-End Touschek goes to Hamburg, R&D at the `Studiengesellschaft für Elektronengeräte' (Philips). He is allowed to hear (illegally) lectures by Professors Lenz und Jensen at the University of Hamburg.
1941? General Electric asks Siemens for a licence to use Steenbeck's betatron patent [Ka47] [St77].
1941-04-18 Kerst (General Electric) submits his famous paper on the operation of the 2,3-MeV-betatron [Ke41a] to Phys. Rev. He reports on gamma rays equivalent to about 1 gr of radium. Wideröe's, Walton's und Jassinski's papers are referred to (according to RW, on a request by the editor), Steenbeck's patent is not. In a subsequent paper Kerst and Serber describe the corresponding theory [Ke41b]. According to Professor W. Paul, this is the last issue of the Phys. Rev. which arrives legally in Germany; it arrives illegally in occupied Norway (Trondheim), mailed as an ordinary letter.
1941-09-03 RW's son Rolf is born in Oslo.
1941-autumn RW hears Roald Tangen's seminar at the `Physics Association' in Oslo, in which he reports on the Kerst-betatron. RW realizes that it is possible to construct a ray-transformer and starts working on the subject again.
1941-12-06 According to Max Steenbeck [St77], Siemens licensed General Electric to use his patents the day before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
1941 End Konrad Gund (X-ray engineer) begins planning a 6MeV-betatron (550 Hz) for medical purposes at the `Siemens Reiniger Werke' in Erlangen, prompted by Steenbeck.
1942-02 Steenbeck's publication in `Electronics', February issue 1942, pp.2223.
1942-?? RW's brother Viggo (born 1904, a pioneer of Nowegian air transport) is imprisoned in Germany after trying to help resistance members to escape from Norway to England.
1942-07 According to Kaiser [Ka47], Siemens applies for a betatron patent, `Akt. 151 465, VIII c/211g'.
1942 Kerst reports on the operation of a 20-MeV-betatron and introduces the name `betatron' [Ke42].
1942-09-15 RW submits a paper on betatrons to `Archiv für Elektrotechnik' [Wi43b], describing his own and Kerst's work, as well as some new ideas on betatrons from 10 to 1000MeV and a detailed design for a 100MeVbetatron, including cost estimates.
1942-09-29 The US-patent `betatron' of Kerst [Ke40] is published.
1942-End Touschek moves to Berlin, works at `Opta Radio' on the development of Braun-tubes, the predecessors of the klystron-valves used later on for radar applications. He also works for Dr. Egerer, the editor of the `Archiv für Elektrotechnik' and sees Wideröe's proposal for a betatron. He finds a mistake in the relativistic calculations and writes to RW, who asks him to join him (quoted in [Am81] p. 5). (RW can not remember these letters; there seem to be no copies preserved.)
1942-12-15 Steenbeck, Dr. Kurt Bischoff, Dr. J. Patzeld und (Dr.) Konrad Gund: meeting on the new betatron project, following ideas of Jassinski [Ja36], quoted in [Ka47].
1943-01-31 Capitulation of German troops in Stalingrad.
1943-spring Visit of (2 or 3) German Air Force officers to RW at NEBB in Oslo. Two days later RW is taken to Berlin by air. It is implied that they would help get his brother Viggo out of prison. According to RW, this is why he accepts to go to Germany. He is to build first a small betatron for 15MeV in Hamburg and some larger ones later on. This is to be done as `compulsory labour' with the agreement of NEBB Company (BBC).
1943-05-08 Prof. Jensen discusses with Schmellenmeier plans to build a 1,5-MeV-`Rheotron' (Jensen had previously agreed this with Prof. F. Houtermans).
1943 Steenbeck reports in `Naturwissenschaften' on a 1,8MeV betatron (a secret project at Siemens) which had already been in operation in 1935/36 and explains his early ideas and patents on betatrons [St43].
1943-07-12 RW submits a second article on betatrons to `Archiv für Elektrotechnik', which includes ideas for a 200-MeV-machine. It is not published.
1943-07-15 RW applies for his first patent on betatrons in Germany on `Injection' (No. 889659), accepted on Jul. 30, 1953, published on Sept. 14, 1953. RW receives legal advice from his friend Dr. Ernst Sommerfeld (Berlin), the son of Arnold Sommerfeld, for all his German patents .
1943-07-25 (to 1943-08-04) Operation `Gomorrha': Five allied bombings on Hamburg cause great destruction. During these days RW is not in Hamburg.
1943-08-05 The `Reichsforschungsrat' (German Research Council) orders a `Rheotron' (betatron) from Schmellenmeyer (Berlin) [Sw92].
1943-08... RW starts working in Hamburg; rents a room. Back and forth between Hamburg and Oslo. Occasional visits to Berlin. His family remains in Oslo. His salary is paid to his wife in Oslo. RW gets in touch with Hollnack and Richard Seifert (trustees of the German Aviation Ministry) und with physicist Dr. Kollath.
1943-? RW meets Bruno Touschek for the first time at the home of Prof. Lenz. Touschek starts working with RW, makes theoretical calculations for the betatron, i.e. on radiation losses (also for an already envisaged 200-MeV-machine) and orbit studies, using the Hamilton formalism.
1943-08-End RW takes a vacation in Tuddal near Telemarken (Southern Norway) and has the idea for `storage rings' whilst lying on the lown behind his hotel. These are expected to provide higher energy and improved collision rates for nuclear reactions.
1943-09-02 RW applies for a 2nd betatron-patent in Germany on `electrical lenses', No. 927590, published Dec. 5, 1953.
1943-09-02 RW applies for a 3rd betatron-patent in Germany on `premagnetisation', No. 932194, published Aug. 25, 1953.
1943-09-04 RW applies for a 4th betatron-patent in Germany on `opposite magnetisation', No. 925004, published on March 10, 1955.
1943-09-08 RW applies for a German patent on `storage ring collider'; No. 876279 [Wi43a], published on May 11, 1953.
1943-09 RW meets the editor of `Archiv für Elektrotechnik', Dr.Egerer, as well as Dr. Schiebold (the physicist promoting `death-X-rays' for shooting down aeroplanes) at Hollnack's.
1943-10-01 RW's report (unpublished) on the development of betatrons, including many references [Wi43b].
1943-10-05 RW applies for a 5th betatron-patent in Germany, on `magnetic lenses', No. 932081, published Nov. 10, 1955 (addendum to patent No. 927,590)
1943-11 Begin of design and construction of a 15-MeV-betatron at C.H.F.Müller-company (Philips) in Hamburg. Iron plates supplied by Seifert's factory, cathodes by Boersch. There is a detailed report with drawings by `Dr.Müller' at the ETH-Library [Mu43].
1943-11-06 RW proposes (report from Oslo) a `fast schedule' for building betatrons in Germany. It includes: a) a 15-MeV-betatron in Hamburg, b) a 200-MeV-betatron and c) a future test-laboratory in Groß-Ostheim. He mentions that work on the 15-MeV-machine has already been started at C.H.F.Müller company in Hamburg [Wi43c].
1944 RW applies for five further betatron patents in Germany.
1944-04 Gund's 5-MeV-betatron is successfully operated for the first time at Siemens in Erlangen. Machine parameters are measured and first experiments are performed (in Erlangen) by H. Kopfermann and W. Paul (both from Göttingen). RW is apparently unaware of these activities.
1944-04-27 (to 1944-04-29) Visit to BBC in Weinheim. Minutes by RW dated May 1, 1944 [Wi44]: Meyer-Delius (BBC) reports on Bothe and Gentner constructing a betatron with extracted beam. (Gentner perhaps confused with Dänzer, who planned with Bothe a betatron for 10 MeV, as reported by W. Paul [Pa47], p. 51.)
1944-04-29 `Secret' minutes by Meyer-Delius on a BBC-meeting in Heidelberg (present: Seif(f)ert, Wideröe, Meyer-Delius, Kade, Weiss, Kneller) to discuss the construction of a large betatron following the `megavolt procedure' [Me44]. Seif(f)ert had passed a `provisional order' from the German Aviation Ministry for BBC to start R&D for such a machine.
1944-06-13 Start of V1 flying-bomb attacks on London.
1944-summer The 15-MeV-betatron is successfully operated for the first time in Hamburg.
1944-08 According to Kaiser [Ka47], there is a `contract with BBC Heidelberg to built a 200-MeV-betatron' (?). (According to RW there was no BBC representation in Heidelberg at that time. One of the directors lived there, and a few meetings were held in Heidelberg; see [Me44]).
1944... Touschek writes several reports on the theory of betatrons. Some of them are preserved at the ETH-Libr. Zurich.
1944-09-06... German V2-rocket attacks on London and Anvers.
1944-autumn Work on the Hamburg betatron is continued by Kollath and Schumann.
1944-10 Another BBC meeting in Heidelberg to discuss the 200-MeV-betatron (according to Kaiser [Ka47]), present Dr.Meyer-Delius (Dir. BBC), Otto Weiss, Dr. Helmut Boecker plus Wideröe und Kollath representing the `Megavolt-Test-Laboratory' (MVA).
1944-autumn The Rheotron-Laboratory of Schmellenmeier is moved from Berlin to Oberoderwitz in Oberlausitz (near the Czechoslovak border).
1944-autumn RW participates to a meeting at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin (chairman Heisenberg), where, among other matters, the betatron is declared useless for war purposes. However, it is recommended that its development for medical applications and research in nuclear physics should continue.
1944-11 RW visits the betatron laboratory at `Siemens-Reiniger-Werke' in Erlangen after which Siemens appear to have switched to 50-Hz-operation of betatrons (the first one was operated at 550 Hz).
1944-End Touschek in Gestapo jail in Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel, after being discovered reading foreign magazines in the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce. He is, however, allowed to continue working. RW and colleagues provide Touschek with his books, some food and cigarettes, but cannot get him free. In jail Touschek develops a theory of radiative dumping for electrons circulating in betatrons [Am81].
1945-Beg. End of R&D for a 200-MeV-betatron at BBC, according to the Kaiser-report [Ka47] p. 8.
1945-02-13 Allied air attack destroys Dresden.
1945-02 Werner von Braun leaves Peenemünde with 500 engineers and 14 tons of documents. They transfer south [Jo79] and hide the documents in a mine in the Harz.
1945-02(?) Touschek to be transferred from Hamburg jail to Kiel. During the march he falls, is shot by a guard, and left for dead. He recuperates and is again imprisoned in Altona jail [Am81].
1945-02 RW applies for three more German patents on betatrons.
1945-02(?) Following instructions from the German Aviation Ministry the Hamburg-betatron is transferred to Kellinghusen, near Wrist (between Bad Bramstedt and Itzehoe, 40 km north of Hamburg) [Gi93]. It works as well as it did in Hamburg.
1945-03-28 The Rheotron-Laboratory is transported by lorry to Burggrub, a small town in `Kreis Ebermannstadt' (passing close to Dresden in flames) between Bamberg and Bayreuth in High-Franken ([Sw92] p. 122).
1945-03 RW receives a final payment for his work from Hollnack (38.000 RM plus 38.000 NKr) and returns to Oslo by train with several stops caused by sabotage. He had his documents cleared in Copenhagen.
1945-03 RW's brother Viggo is freed by American troops near Darmstadt.
1945-03-27 Last of 2,800 V2 fired [Jo78] [Jo79].
1945-03-29 Last of 10,500 V1 lounched [Jo78] [Jo79].
1945-04-14 US-Troops free Richard Gans and take over the Rheotron-Laboratory of Schmellenmeier in Burggrub.
1945-04-30 Hitler commits suicide in the Führerbunker.
1945-05 German troops retreat from Norway.
1945-05-03 British troops occupy Hamburg without a fight.
1945-05-07 Unconditional surrender; end of the War.
1945-05-09 Quisling surrenders to Norwegian Police.
1945-05 Hollnack makes arrangements with the British troops. Kollath, Schumann and Touschek can continue working with the 15MeVbetatron in Kellinghusen.
1945-05-23 RW is arrested in Oslo (Ilebu jail), accused of having worked on the develoment of V2-rockets. In jail he writes a detailed report on the Hamburg betatron.
1945-06? Touschek is liberated from prison by the British authorities. He goes to Kellinghusen where he writes several additional theoretical reports on the betatron [To45].
1945-07-09 G. Randers visits RW in prison to clarify his activities during the War. On the same day there is a solar eclipse over Europe.
1945-07-09 RW is freed, after 48 days, following an intervention by `a friend of Odd Dahl' (G. Randers?) and probably other prominent scientists [Da81].
1945-07... Until the spring of 1946 RW has no job in Oslo, no money, no passport. NEBB stops paying his salary. RW develops the theory of the gigator (the `synchrotron').
1945-08-06 Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.
1945-09-05 McMillan presents the synchrotron-principle [Mc45].
1945 Veksler presents the synchrotron-principle [Ve45].
1945-11 An ad hoc commission of experts to provide a professional assessment of RW is formed in Oslo.
1945-12-11 Kollath reports on the betatron tests in Wrist [Ko45].
1945-12 Conclusion of betatron-tests in Wrist. The 15-MeV-betatron is then transported to the Woolwich Arsenal near London. Kollath helps to run it there. It is used to X-ray iron plates after which all trace of this machine vanishes, it has probably been dismantled and scrapped.
1946-01-31 RW applies for a Norwegian patent in which the synchrotron principles are described with many details [Wi46]. Privately submitted through an agency (not for BBC), the `Tandbergs Patentkontor' Oslo.
1946-02-14 An experts' report on the activity of RW during the War is presented to the Norwegian Police [Hy46]. It is evidently inspired by the overheated patriotic feelings of the time and includes assumptions (in part incorrect, due to lack of information) which are not taken into account by the Authorities [Wa94].
1946-Beginn. Touschek moves to Göttingen, attracted by the installation of Gund`s 6MeVbetatron and starts his diploma-thesis.
1946-spring RW is given a provisional Norwegian passport for one month.
1946-05-15 RW applies for a Swiss patent on the principles of the synchrotron (253582).
1946-? Goward and Barnes succed testing a first synchrotron.
1946-Easter RW spends approximately two weeks in Baden. Professor Paul Scherrer, a friend of Theodor Boveri, recommends RW for a position at BBC-Basel. RW starts designing a betatron for 31 MeV with H. Hartmann. There is an agreement on future work on betatrons at BBC.
1946-summer Touschek obtains his title of `Diplomphysiker' in Göttingen with a thesis on the theory of the betatron, supervised by R. Becker und H. C. Kopferman [Am81].
1946-08-01... RW starts working for BBC, Baden (CH) and receives a salary as of August 1. In need of money, he later sells the rights for the Norwegian synchrotron patent to BBC (for about 10.000sfr) with the legal advice of Ernst Sommerfeld and Otto Lardelli (BBC).
1946-08-19 RW and his family move from Oslo to Zurich. By boat to Anwers with their car. They initially move into a flat in Zurich.
1946-10 RW is called back to Norway to take part in a judicial hearing. He stays with his parents.
1946-11-02 RW accepts a `forelegg' with minor allegations about his behaviour during the War [Wa94] (it includes a fine and confiscation of most of the last instalment of money received from Hollnack). By doing so he avoids a court trial. He is immediately authorised to return to Zurich, with a passport valid only for Zurich.
1946-11 RW returns to Zurich and continues working on the construction of the BBC-betatron for 31 MeV electrons.
1946-11... Up to 1986 a total of 78 BBC-betatrons are installed worldwide. Their main use is for medical therapy (cancer treatment), but some are used for materials tests.
1947-01 Hermann F. Kaiser from the US Naval Research Lab. Washington DC reports on European developments on induction accelerators [Ka47]: Gund's and Wideröe's work is described. One patent application from Siemens and seven from `C.H.F.Müller, Dr.Müller' are mentioned (1942-1945). Kaiser considers RW's 200 MeV project as the most promising of the time in Europe and provides many details, including cost estimates.
1947... RW and his family live in Zurich until 1948, not very comfortably, freezing... RW is working at BBC in Baden. Ragnhild complains that he works too hard.
1947-03 RW obtains an ordinary Norwegian passport, valid for all countries, and starts travelling. He keeps accurate notes of all trips, conferences attended, visits and meetings.
1947-04-21 RW submits a short comment to `Journ. of Appl. Phys.' correcting some statements contained in the Kaiser-Report [Wi47a].
1947-05-22 Rudolf Kollath and Gerhard Schumann submit their article describing the 15-MeV-betatron and its performance to `Archiv f. Elektrot.' [Ko47]. It includes important information and many details.
1947-08 Gund's 5-MeV-betatron is successfully operated in Göttingen. Up to 70% of the electron beam is extracted following a `scattering' procedure [Gu49].
1948 The Radiumspital in Oslo orders a 6-MeV-betatron from Siemens Erlangen.
1948 RW starts the 31-MeV-betatron project for the Kantonsspital Zurich.
1948-11-09 RW's applies for a German patent (now BBC) on the principles of the synchrotron. It is published on Aug.21, 1952 (847318) and gives recognition to the Norwegian patent 76696 submitted on Jan.31, 1946.
1949 RW's family moves from Zurich to Baden.
1949-autumn Installation of the first BBC-betatron (31 MeV) at the Kantonsspital Zurich.
1949-autumn Olav Netteland from Oslo's Radiumspital visits Erlangen and finds no significant progress on the 6-MeV-betatron. Siemens working on a larger one.
1950 Radiologists Congress in London.
1951-04 Inauguration and start of operation of the first BBC 31MeVbetatron at the Kantonsspital Zurich. First patients are irradiated.
1951-09 Netteland and Dr. Steen from the Radiumspital in Oslo visit the Kantonsspital Zurich and see the 31-MeV-betatron in operation.
1951-autumn Dr. Eker orders a betatron from BBC for the Radiumspital in Oslo.
1952 The Cosmotron accelerator in Brookhaven reaches a particle energy of 3,000 MeV (= 3 GeV).
1952-05-05 (to 1952-50-08) First meeting of the Council of the future CERN in Paris. A provisional CERN-PS-Group is formed to plan a 10-GeV proton-synchrotron; members are: Odd Dahl (chairman), H. Alfven, W. Gentner, F. Goward, F. Regenstreif. RW is appointed as part-time adviser (he is not present).
1952 A 31-MeV-betatron from BBC is installed in the Inselspital in Berne.
1952-summer A 31-MeV-betatron from BBC is installed in the Radiumspital in Oslo. Six months later it is operational.
1952-06-03 (to 1952-06-19) International Conference in Copenhagen to discuss future projects on nuclear and particle physics for Europe. RW joins on 1952-06-17; he does not meet Odd Dahl there.
1952-06-20 (to 1952-06-23) Second meeting of the provisional CERN-Council in Copenhagen. The PS-Group welcomes new members D. W. Fry, K. Johnsen und Chr. Schmelzer.
1952-08-04 Returning from Australia via the USA, RW meets (for the first time) Odd Dahl in Brookhaven. Until Aug. 10, 1952 the three CERN `delegates' (RW, Dahl and Goward) discuss with Courant, Livingston, J.Blewett and Snyder on their newly developed principle of `strong focusing'.
1952-10-04 (to 1952-10-07) Third meeting of CERN-Council in Amsterdam. A 30-GeV-synchrotron with modern `strong focusing' is proposed for CERN.
1952-11-04 RW applies for German and Swiss patents on the extraction of electrons from betatrons. German No. 954814, made public on Dec. 1956 [Wi52].
1952-12-18 RW, Citron und Gentner visit the future site of CERN in Meyrin, north of Geneva.
1953-03-26 RW's German patent on `storage rings' (1943) is retrospectively approved and published.
1953-12-12 Inaugural lecture of RW at ETH in Zurich.
1954-05-17 Start of works for CERN in Meyrin.
1954-07-15 RW becomes head of the department `Electric Accelerators' (EA) at BBC.
1954-10-18 RW to Mannheim and Karlsruhe to negociate a deal on users rights for Steenbeck's patents at a German Federal Court. BBC eventually has to pay 100,000 DM to Siemens. BBC is represented by lawyer Otto Lardelli. According to RW, the historical facts are not correctly taken into account.
1954 In the BEVATRON accelerator in Berkeley, protons reach an energy of 6,1 GeV.
1955 Kollath publishes the first edition of his book on particle accelerators, Vieweg Publishers, Braunschweig [Ko55].
1955 RW's family moves from Baden to Nussbaumen
1955-06-10 Corner-stone laying for the European CERN-Laboratory in Meyrin, north of Geneva.
1956-01-23 Kerst et al. [Ke56] propose synchrotrons with strong focusing to be used as storage rings.
1956 At the `CERN Symposium on High Energy Accelerators and Pion-Physics' Gerry O'Neill proposes `The Storage-Ring-Synchrotron' [O´N56]. RW is present and describes his ideas on storage rings in a discussion [Wi56]. RW meets O'Neill there.
1956... BBC (RW) starts constructing the Turin synchrotron for 105MeV electrons (with Gonella, Gleb Wataghin and others). It is a synchrotron with initial betatron regime.
1956-12-20 RW's German patent on the extraction of electrons from betatrons is accepted and published.
1957 Successful extraction of electrons from the betatron at the Inselspital in Berne.
1959-1963 RW is contracted as adviser to DESY (Synchrotron).
1959 The 32-MeV mobile betatron for the private clinic `Casa di Cura S. Ambrogio' (Prof. Dr. Cova) in Milan is installed (named `Asclepitron'). Still in operation in 1990.
1959-11-24 The CERN-Proton-Synchrotron (28 GeV) is commissioned and starts operation.
1959-12-18 The research centre DESY in Hamburg is founded. A synchrotron for 6,4-GeV-electrons is under construction.
1960 The Brookhaven 31-GeV-synchrotron starts operation.
1960-03-07 Bruno Touschek presents his proposal for the first electron-positron storage ring (AdA) at Frascati [To60].
1961-02-27 AdA starts operation in Frascati.
1962-07-10 RW receives a `Dr.h.c.' from the RWTH Aachen.
1962 RW becomes `Titular-Professor' at the ETH Zurich.
1962... RW's main interest: The effects of radiation on living cells. He develops a `Two-Components-Theory'.
1962 Kollath's book on accelerators: 2nd edition [Ko62].
1964-04 RW receives the `Dr.med.h.c.' from Zurich University.
1966 RW's thesis of 1928 appears in English (translated at DESY) in a book edited by Stan Livingston [Li66].
1969 RW retires from BBC - but continues working.
1969-05-03 RW receives the `Röntgenmedaille' of the City of Remscheid.
1970 BBC-betatrons for 45 MeV.
1971-01-24 RW receives the `Röntgenpreis' from the City of Würzburg and the Physical and Medical Society of Würzburg.
1972 RW's final lectures at the ETH Zurich.
1973 Gold Medal at the XIII JRC in Madrid.
1973 RW becomes a member of the Norwegian Academy of Sciences.
1981 Odd Dahl publishes `Trollmann og rundbrenner' (an autobiographic book) [Da81].
1982-01-10 RW's lecture at the University of Oslo about his life and scientific work. Until Jan. 17, Conference at Geilo.
1982-07-10 An article by Olav Aspelund on RW is published in `Morgenbladet' Oslo [As82].
1983 Finn Aaserud and Jan Vaagen publish a longer Article on RW in the Norwegian magazine »Naturen« [Aa83], after an interview in Oslo (see [Wi91]).
1984-02 RW's retrospective article in Europhys. News [Wi84].
1984 RW becomes honorary member of ESTRO.
1992-03 Per Dahl, son of Odd Dahl, reports on RW's life and work in an SSC-Report [Da92] (10 pages).
1992-04 RW is awarded the Robert-Wilson-Prize of the American Physical Society APS.
1992-07-11 RW celebrates his 90th birthday in Oslo.
1992-07 RW is honorary chairman in a session of the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators in Hamburg.
1992-12-02 A Symposium to celebrate RW's 90th anniversary takes place at the ETH in Zurich.
The potential and power of launching a projectile using electro-magnetic force have fascinated inventors and researchers ever since the solenoid was invented. However, none of the attempts was successful. During World War II Germany started two separate projects to study electric propulsion. The first was headed by an engineer and consultant to the Siemens company named Muck. Muck proposed a solenoid-type gun to be built in a hillside near the Lille coal fields in France, since 50,000 tons of anthracite per month would be needed to generate the electricity to power the gun. This gun was designed to attack London from a range of 248km with 204.5kg shells. In 1943 Reichsminister Albert Speer was notified of the proposal, which was rejected as impractical after examination by a number of scientists and technical experts.
An electric gun for air-defense was also designed. Engineer Hansler of the Gesellschaft für Gerätbau put forward this idea in 1944. It was based on the linear motor principle and promised a 6,000 rounds per minute rate of fire from a multiple-barreled installation, a velocity of over 1829m/sec and shells containing 500g of explosive. The Luftwaffe accepted the basic concept for use as an anti-aircraft gun. Intensive tests with an electro-magnetic discharge mechanism were made on a 20mm anti-aircraft gun. The tests began in Berlin and were later continued in the foothills of the Alps, where firing tests were carried out against the slopes of the Wetterstein mountain. A muzzle velocity 2,000m/sec was attained. Preliminary assessments showed that conventional generators would easily and cheaply generate the necessary 3,900 kilowatts per gun. Later it was found that a considerable amount of energy was needed, and a new type of condenser was developed. It was hoped that the new condenser would bring an improvement, but the tests were not finished before the war's end. Work on a prototype gun began in February 1945 but was not finished before the war's end. The gun fell into the hands of the Americans. After the war the Allies closely studied the project, but eventually it was calculated that each gun would have required the services of a major city's power station. The project has never been revived.
During World War One (It was before the WW2), as is well known, Nikola Tesla approached first the US, and then European military establishments with the idea for a "death ray", a high energy beam capable of melting "airplane motors" at some distance. Between the World Wars, in almost every western country, science fiction movies played on the concept, with one very popular movie with Boris Karloff, ever the quintessential "mad scientist", playing a crazed inventor tinkering with death rays and world domination. Similar "Buck Rogers" type gadgetry delighted movie goers in Britain, Germany, France, and Italy before the Second World War.
Then, as the Nazi UFO Mythos emerged, astonishing and specific claims began to be advanced, again by the same circle of a few disenchanted postwar Nazi sympathizers, of astounding beam weapons, of Motorstoppmittel (Means to Stop Motors), a device that resembles modern electromagnetic pulse weapons designed to knock out electronic circuitry, of electromagnetic rail guns, and of a mysterious weapon the Germans were working on called a Kraftstrahlkanone, a "Strong Ray Canon". The device was first reported by Henry Stevens.34
34 Henry Stevens, German Research Project, The German Death Rays.
The Erratik Institute has neither cost nor effort has been spared to herauszurecherchieren this Drawing of the beam cannon (or Donar cannon) from the Zvedenborg (from http://www.erratik-institut.de/7.5.4_V21_SBM/V2115_KSK.html).
This odd looking L-shaped weapon comprised some sort of crystal, then a series of hollow tubes, each focusing whatever beam was generated to a narrower and narrower point, until it emerged from a small hole, with allegedly deadly effectiveness, though limited range. What the crystal was, we do not know. What sort of beam was generated, we do not know, though the hollow tubes in declining ratios would seem to indicate that it was some sort of acoustic wave, though why a crystal would have been used is
unclear. For these reasons, the weapon was usually dismissed as a flight of fancy, and Stevens critiqued for reproducing it.
However, with very recall experiments and advances in physics, we are in a position to conjecture what the weapon may have been, and what principle the Germans may have discovered - decades early, to be sure - that may have been behind its operation. An experimental, and highly theoretical and mathematical paper entitled "On the Existence of Undistorted Progressive Waves (UPWs) of Arbitrary Speeds 0<v<oo in Nature," by Waldyr A Rodrigues Jr. and Jian-Yu Lu was published in October of 1997. Investigating a class of Undistorted Waves, i.e., a class of wave forms that do not diminish in form or force over distance, they show that various solutions for these waves can be found within the standard equations for such waves.35 If this paper were merely another mathematical swipe at relativity - demonstrating solutions to certain equations that the "relativity police" would issue a speeding ticket for - then it would be easily dismissible.
Unfortunately, the authors' main points are not the abstruse mathematical demonstrations and proofs, but rather, a method for generating such waves. First noticing that solutions for Maxwell's equations in a waveguide had both subluminal and superluminal solutions,36 they went on to propose a simple method for generating and for measuring the velocities of such wave structures. The method was called "Finite Aperture Approximation," basically, a method of squeezing acoustic or longitudinal waves through a very small hole, and observing the waveform interference pattern that emerged on the other side, and calculating the velocity, not of the wave, but of the interference pattern itself. If one knows the radius of the aperture and the strength and frequency of the pulse being squeezed through it, one knows the approximate depth of the Finite Aperture Approximation's resulting wave interference pattern.37
I.e., the scalar homogeneous wave equation, the Klein-Gordon equation, the Maxwell equations, and the Dirac and Weyl equations have such solutions, even in the vacuum. (Rodriguez and Jian-yu, "On the Existence of Undistorted Progressive Waves (UPWs) of Arbitrary Speeds 0<v<oo in Nature," p. 1.
36 Ibid., p. 4.
Ibid., pp. 4-6, particularly Eq. 2.7 on p. 6.
The results of experiments with at acoustic longitudinal pulses led the authors to conclude "these results... give us confidence that electromagnetic subluminal and superluminal waves may be physically launched with appropriate devices."38 Additionally, the authors of this unusual paper are "quite sure" that such a wave interference pattern "can be launched over a large distance."39 Then come the bombshells:
If we take into account this feet together with the results of the acoustic experiments described in section 2, we arrive at tin- conclusion that subluminal electromagnetic pulses...and also superluminal X-waves can be launched with appropriate antennas using present technology ... Nevertheless, the electromagnetic X-wave that is an interference pattern is such that its peak travels with speed c/cos (ni) > 1.the question arises: Is the existence of superluminal electromagnetic waves in conflict with Einstein's Special Relativity?40
While this is not the place to summarize their lengthy mathematical critique of Special Relativity, based on their experiments, it is worth noting that the existence of this little known and recently discovered class of waves, or more specifically, wave-interference systems, "implies a breakdown of the Principle of relativity in both its active...and passive...versions."41
What emerges from a comparison of this paper and the alleged Kraftstrahlkanone is that apparently the Germans may have discovered and been conducting research into a similar, if not identical, phenomenon, a phenomenon that others would call a crucial component of scalar physics: electromagnetic wave-interference to produce a wave-system of superluminal and deadly force. They were, it seems, experimenting with some weaponized form of a Finite Aperture Approximation device. But why a crystal? In part, perhaps, because as is well known, crystals under stress, and acoustic bombardment would be one form of stress, give off minute packets of electrical energy via the piezo-electric effect. But they also give off minute packets of sound, or "phonons", as well. But beyond this allegation, is there any other indication that the Germans were after exotic "post-nuclear" generation weaponry? There is indeed some indication that the Germans were involved with extensive research into "Tesla" technology and weaponry and other exotic particle beam technology at the University of Heidelberg. As Mayer and Mehner report, there is in available documentation that some type of atomic research was being conducted at Ludwigshafen by none other than I.G. Farben. But this research "had in reality more to do with the development of the so-called 'death rays'."42 In a file dated December 1, 1944 on this research, it was noted that the work force was moved from Ludwigshafen to Heidelberg in July of 1943.43
This facility in Heidelberg was completely underground, being some 50 meters long and 25 meters wide, with a roof from 8 to 10 meters high, of .75 and 1 meter thickness. The entire bunker complex, as detailed in the diagram on the next page, consisted of a large parabolic reflector made of quartz, a "polytron," a power circuit running the circumference of the bunker, a storage area for various electrical equipment behind the quartz reflector, a generator and a transformer, a "stand" on which various targets for disintegration were placed, and a control-observation booth to the side of the stand. The quartz parabolic reflector was approximately one centimeter thick.44 An American intelligence report declassified only in 1998 described the experiments conducted with this and similar apparatus as follows:
Experiments: The experiments involved a large, elaborate atom- smashing apparatus, the main features of which were four "Spruehpole" (positive) and one "Fangpol" (negative), each about 6 m high. Liberated protons were conveyed through a quartz tube to the Spruehpole, from which they were "fired" at an object placed on a quartz plate up to 800 m distant. Th i s resulted...in the complete disintegration of the object.
The first two experiments of this kind ... took place in Dec 43 and Jan 44. In one a 10 cm cube of steel (grade ST0012) was disintegrated within four-tenths of a second, The object in the second experiment was water, contained in a large quartz tube, tiled so that the "rays" would strike the largest possible surface. The water disappeared in two tenths of a second.
The most spectacular experiment was conducted early April 1944, when some 75 rats were made to disappear in the same way. The experiment was photographed from the quartz-enclosed observation tower, and PW claims there was no trace of smoke or flame, nor did any ashes remain on the iron plate. His explanation of this apparent violation of the laws of physics is that the rats were somehow reduced to a gas, which was absorbed by the iron plate.
PW's Evaluation: PW doubts that the principle involved in the experiments described above could be adapted to military use in less than two years. The apparatus is extremely complicated and far too large to be moved readily.45
This experimentation sounds like a much more sophisticated high voltage direct current form of Tesla's direct current impulse experiments, as well as of the unusual accidental disappearances of tools and equipment in a US Navy arc-welding facility that prompted an investigation led by none other than T. Townsend Brown during World War Two.
There are a number of strong indications that the Germans were also experimenting with a variety of "Tesla" like devices that could, conceivably, also be called Zero Point Energy devices. In 1978, the British government finally declassified a British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee (BIOS) report on two curious circuits devised by German naval engineer and inventor, Hans Coler (or Kohler). Entitled The Invention of Hans Coler, Relating to an Alleged New Source ol Power," B.I.O.S. Final Report no 1043, Item No. 31, Summer 1946, this report consisted of tests and findings on two strange circuits conducted at the University of Berlin between the World Wars under the auspices of none other than Dr. Schumann, discoverer of the Schumann resonance of the earth.47 A mere glance will explain why the device attracted the immediate attention of the German Navy, which classified it as a possible source of quiet and limitless energy for submarine propulsion.
It will be noted that this hexagonal construction of coils and magnets and two "rotating" sub-circuits has absolutely no source of power. Yet, to the mystified Coler and Dr. Schumann, it nevertheless managed to produce, or better, transduce, power seemingly from nowhere.
Little is known how much farther the Germans took this device, or for that matter, how far the British took it for the two decades and a half after the war that they had to work on it until its declassification. What is unusual is that Dr. Schumann was involved with secret German research on "batteries" as late as 1943, and was subsequently brought to the United State as part of Operation Paperclip. It was this same Dr. Schumann who had noted in 1926 that Hans Coler's device exhibited "no fault, hoax, or fraud on the part of its inventor."48 Such "free energy" devices seemed to have come very early to the attention of the leadership of the Third Reich - witness the meeting between Hitler, Planck, and Schauberger - and more especially to the attentions of the SS. Devices involving pulsed Tesla coils, suspiciously similar to Tesla's own "Impulse Magnifying Transformer" were constructed.49
One such device, the so-called Karl Schappeller Device, bears close scrutiny, since it bears resemblances to another device found by Nick Cook and described in his Hunt for Zero Point. This odd device is described by Henry Stevens as follows:
The Schappeller device is really composed of two separate units, the rotor and the stator. The stator is constructed as follows: its surface is round or ball-shaped, being composed of two half-shells of steel. These half-shells contain the internal structure and are air tight. Attached at each "pole" of each half-shell is an iron bar magnet, most of whose structure is internal. This means that the bulk of the magnet is inside the steel ball, one opposite the other. There is a space between the two bar magnets at the very center of the sphere.
Insulation, a ceramic material, is placed on the inside of the steel ball leaving a hollow central area. Within this hollow area and around the space between the magnets are wound two internal coils. These originate at the bar magnet poles and each terminate at the center of the sphere with a connection leading out of the sphere to the rotor. These coils are composed of a hollow copper tube filled with a special and secret substance called the "electret". Upon leaving the sphere the electret filled copper tubes are replaced by conventional copper wire.
An electrical connection is made from the outside surface of one pole to one pole of a special type of battery which is grounded at the other pole... This electret is a permanent magnet within the sphere... The actual composition of Schappeller's electret remains a secret but another electret has been made by Professor Mototaro Eguchi. It consists of carnauba wax and resin, perhaps also containing some beeswax. It was kept in a strong electrical field while baking slowly until it solidified.50
Before proceeding to how this device allegedly operated, it is important to note that this device bears strong resemblance in some respccts to a device called "the Bell" uncovered by Nick Cook and his researches, covered below. Moreover, we shall see how the sum total of all these strange coils, spheres, and Bells will sound only familiar with devices alleged in two famous UFO crashes after the war.
Returning now to the Schappeller device and its operation, for Schappeller the "neutral area", called the Bloch wall in a bar magnet, where the polarity is neither "north" nor "south", was of great interest and significance to Schapeller. In the Schappeller device it is noted that the empty area between the two magnets corresponds with this Bloch wall of neutrality.51 It is this "neutral area" that is the area electrically charged by grounding when the device is put into operation. The result is a "new kind" of magnetism, a glowing magnetism in which, according to Schappeller's interpreters, electricity is stationary and magnetism is radiated.52 At the Bloch Wall, "the point of zero magnetism, no spin and magnetic reversal, is the point, so Schappeller theorized, energy enters and is radiated, in the form of gravity. Thus, according to one interpreter, gravity is a quadropole (four poles, rather than two poles), 360 degree radiated push.53
But most astonishing about the little known Schappeller were his extraordinarily revolutionary, and prescient, views on thermodynamics, views that, in his day, would have had him roundly dismissed as a crackpot, but some 35 years later, became an exciting new area of physics and chemistry research. That area is non-equilibrium thermodynamics and systems kinetics.
Schappeller had something to say about the Second Law of Thermodynamics. He said there was another and unknown thermodynamic cycle which runs opposite the Second Law. To name this idea we will call it "Reverse Thermodynamics". It is the reverse of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in that it leads to an increase in entropy. Not only is there an increase in order by there is an increase in cold! Schappeller....built his spherical device primarily to demonstrate the principles behind this Reverse thermodynamics. It was not designed as a practical machine.54
Both Schappeller and Schauberger were implying a physics based, not on inanimate lifeless processes, the physics we have come to
know, but on animate, creative processes hut Schappeller's views on ihcrmodynamics were truly revolutionary, and some decades ahead of their time, until Ilya Prigogine won the Nobel prize in chemistry precisely for his pioneering work on self-organizing principles evident in systems driven to a high state of non-equilibrium in 1977.55 The new paradigm, a breathtakingly simple, and yet far-reaching one, was simply that equilibrium had been replaced with non-equilibrium in physics, especially for systems analysis. 56
The German experiments with prototype Radar Absorbent Materials (RAM) was mentioned previously. In these experiments, according to Lt. Col. Tom Bearden (USAF, Ret.), that the Germans in late 1945 discovered that radar waves on such non-linear material resulted in the phenomenon of a superluminal, longitudinal "pressure" wave. In doing so, the Germans had brought the paradigms of physics far beyond the conventions of the "linear" physics that was being perfected in Allied laboratories, largely under the aegis of the Manhattan Project. Consider the information that has been assembled thus far:
They did not reject a concept of aether, but rather, replaced the static nineteenth century idea with a dynamic aether;
This aether then gave rise to the forces and particles of conventional physics via various morphological combinations of vorticular, rotating structures, thus, its principle manner of thinking was non-linear and, in a word, purely topological
These views were simultaneously allied both with occult doctrines of "primal matter" or life force or "Vril" or whatever one wishes to call it on the one hand, and with the construct called the Zero Point Energy that resulted from the equations of quantum mechanics, a very "German". "Aryan" science;
They were pursuing exotic ideas and technologies in unconventional combinations, the most salient features of which can be summarized as a concentration on:
(a) Pulsed high voltage and "focusing" effects;
(b) High rpm turbines and other such rotating devices;
(d) Finite Aperture apparati;
(e) Radioactivity and nuclear particle research;
(f)The effects of extremes of temperature on the density state of matter as a means of generating enormous explosive destructive power; and finally,
(g)The use of quartz and other crystals in generating some of these effects.57
With these thoughts in mind, we now approach what may be the most sensational experiment the Germans undertook during the War. The device was called simply, "The Bell", and its shocked and dumbfounded discoverer was Nick Cook.
In the 1960s, a movie with Glenn Ford and a young Dabney Coleman, playing a small part as a government agent, was made. The movie was about a secret society allegedly at work behind the scenes in American society and politics, to manipulate research grants and control the direction of society. In the movie, Ford plays a member of this society who is served his "due bill" for all the favors the society has granted him, and forced to betray a Hungarian friend in order to deny that friend a crucial academic post and grant. His friend is named Dr. Hlavaty.
I have always thought that perhaps the movie's Dr. Hlavaty was not so fictional, being perhaps based on the brilliant Hungarian physicist, Vaclav Hlavaty, who attempted a six-dimensional solution to the Unified Field Theory that had eluded Dr. Einstein. Whatever the truth of that hypothesis, it is perhaps interesting to note that the "Brotherhood of the Bell" seemed to exist for no other purpose than to suppress certain types of research, or at least, to keep it out of the public eye.
It should come as no surprise, then, that there was a "brotherhood of the Bell" during World War Two, for one of the most strange objects the Germans were experimenting on was a device that was known simply as "The Bell." So sensitive and secret was this device, that when it was evacuated from its underground secret laboratory in Lower Silesia prior to the Russian occupation of the area, the SS shot the approximately 60 scientists - doubtless on Kammler's orders - that were involved with this strange object.58
The Bell consisted apparently of two counter-rotating cylinders, and resembled a Bell in its general shape. It stood approximately 12 to 15 feet high, and was approximately 9 to 12 feet in diameter.59 Into this device, an unknown purplish metallic-liquid looking substance known only as "Xerum 525" or "Serum 525" was poured, apparently to be mechanically rotated at high speed, and possibly electrically rotated as well, by the device. The result was that organic objects placed within the field of the Bell swiftly decayed without putrefaction, decomposing into a black goo, and then finally, into dust, within a matter of hours, and not several weeks. So strong was the field that resulted from the Bell, that on its first test the technicians and scientists involved were all killed.
Subsequently, the Bell was operated only for one or two minutes at a time, and housing below ground in a room bricked and tiled with ceramic tiles, which were then covered in thick rubber mats. After each test, the mats were burned, and the room washed down by concentration camp inmates with brine.60 When Cook was shown the installation in which the Bell was housed, he was also informed of its high electrical consumption.61
What was the mysterious "Xerum 525?" When I first read of this substance which had to be stored in lead lined cylinders, I first thought it sounded like a radioactive isotope of mercury, or perhaps some other radioactive material suspended in solution of some sort. More recently, allegations have surfaced concerning the neutron emitting properties of so-called "red mercury" or mercury antimonate oxide, supposedly a source for detonating thermonuclear warheads without the necessity for detonating an atom bomb, and a powerful conventional explosive in its own right. Whatever the mysterious substance was, it seems clear that it was highly radioactive, and that the Germans were subjecting it to extremely high mechanical and electrical rotations to study t h e resulting field effects, effects that Cook's advisors could only qualify as "torsion" fields.62 These fields are thought by some contemporary physicists to have direct relevance to the study of gravity, and of time.63 Close to the Bell's underground testing bunker the Germans had built a large concrete henge-like structure, in the pillars of which were high grade steel hooks, an obvious testing frame for what must have been an extremely powerful propulsion device.
What happened to the Bell? No one knows. Like Kammler, it goes completely missing at the end of the war, and its scientists, as already stated, were murdered to a man by the SS to keep whatever precious secrets it, and they, had uncovered. But as we shall discover in the next and final part of this book, the Bell may have surfaced again under very public, if not bizarre, circumstances.
Cannon KSK (KraftStrahlKanone) or "Donar" caliber 6 cm.
It is interesting that the modern "Donar". So it not the first instrument with such a great name.
Procedure "Donar": not described accurately but believe that folframovye balls served by some oscillators.
According to another version ( bottom photo ) considered that the gun used Magic Crystals force ( well, there 's not talk about these crystals although it is believed that they personally engaged Kammler and they were reality , processed in the optical department of the company " Skoda" , and there were several guns rip it out of them personally , Kammler as we know no one will ever find could not likely that he left for New Swabia last submarine. ) . It is believed that debris KSK These photos hit the 'Net from Russia where he fell.